Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II integral membrane protein primarily expressed on endothelial cells in prostate cancer.1 It has low expression in some normal tissues, including prostate, brain, and salivary glands.1,2 Expression of PSMA is also seen in the neovasculature of non-small cell lung cancer, neuroendocrine, and breast cancers.3
While PSMA is expressed in all types of prostate tissue, it is upregulated in prostate cancer cells. Overexpression of PSMA has been associated with a poor prognosis in prostate cancer. Patients with high PSMA generally have higher grade cancer and metastatic CRPC.1
Unlike prostate-specific antigen (PSA), PSMA is expressed on the cell surface.4 This makes PSMA is an attractive target for CRPC and other cancer treatment.
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CRPC: castration-resistant prostate cancer.
1. Bravaccini S, Puccetti M, Bocchini M, et al. PSMA expression: a potential ally for the pathologist in prostate cancer diagnosis. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):4254. 2. O’Keefe DS, Bacich DJ, Huang SS, Heston WDW. A perspective on the evolving story of PSMA biology and PSMA based imaging and endoradiotherapeutic strategies. J Nucl Med. 2018;59(7):1007-1013. 3. Chang SS, Reuter VE, Heston WDW, Bander NH, Grauer LS, Gaudin PB. Five different anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) antibodies confirm PSMA expression in tumor-associated neovasculature. Cancer Res. 1999;59(13):3192-3198. 4. Chang SS. Overview of prostate-specific membrane antigen. Rev Urol. 2004;6 (Suppl 10):S13-18.