Minimal residual disease (MRD)

The persistence of cancerous cells after treatment, known as minimal (or measurable) residual disease, may lead to relapse

Even after remission, small traces of malignant cells that remain can lead to relapse, limited treatment options, and poor patient outcomes 1-3


Evolving science and knowledge of MRD as a prognostic indicator is shaping treatment choices and overall patient management 4,5


As part of our ongoing commitment to improving patient outcomes, Amgen continues to explore innovative approaches for eradicating MRD across multiple hematologic malignancies. Amgen is leading the way in MRD+ B-cell precursor ALL and is committed to advancing the science to fulfill our mission of serving patients.

Detecting MRD: methods and sensitivity6,7


    Flow cytometry

    A rapid and qualitative method of identifying cancer cells

    1 cancer cell in
    10,000 normal cells6

    Polymerase chain reaction

    A well-established method in which a specific section of DNA from cancer cells is replicated and amplified

    1 cancer cell in
    100,000 normal cells6

    Next-generation sequencing

    An extremely sensitive DNA sequencing method

    1 cancer cell in
    1,000,000 normal cells7

Where is your nearest MRD testing facility?

The link below is an informational resource to help healthcare providers locate MRD testing facilities for clinically appropriate patients. Amgen does not refer, recommend, or endorse healthcare providers or facilities listed here. The selection of a healthcare provider is a patient's choice and should be carefully considered. Please contact facilities directly to learn more about the availability of MRD testing at these locations.



Adults with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who achieve CR may still relapse1,8

Going deeper by measuring MRD

MRD is an important prognostic indicator that may be useful for predicting relapse3
  • In adult B-cell ALL:
    • Up to half of adult patients relapse after achieving complete remission with standard-of-care chemotherapy1,8
      • This can lead to poor long-term outcomes and fewer treatment options1,2
    • 70% of patients who relapse are unlikely to achieve CR2 when treated with chemotherapy1

NCCN Guidelines® recommend testing for MRD9
NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for ALL recommends MRD assessment upon completion of initial induction therapy and states9: "MRD is an essential component of patient evaluation over the course of sequential therapy"

Get more facts and keep MRD testing a priority in your practice

*According to a meta-analysis of 5 studies evaluating 806 adult patients with ALL.

CR: complete response; CR2: second complete response.

Over a 10 year period, patients who achieved MRD negativity had a greater chance of survival vs patients who remained MRD+4*